Some sources for related information:
Some sources for related information:
Science Guy Bill Nye’s new book on climate change, Unstoppable, is an outstanding and (I’m fairly certain) unique book about climate change, focusing on the science behind the many solutions available to us. With a friendly, down-to-earth, entertaining delivery, Nye provides clear and useful explanations of both current and just-over-the-horizon technologies and related scientfic phenomena. The result is a book that will appeal both to science enthusiasts and to anyone interested in a constructive, hopeful, extremely well-informed book about the science of fighting climate change.
Nye for the most part takes no sides except that of the science, so that when discussing controversial topics (like nuclear energy, for instance), he provides not a prebaked opinion, but rather a careful description of pros, cons, and unintended consequences. Because he focuses on the scientific realities and near-term possibilities, his perspective is as refreshing as it is informative.
Some of the solutions Nye describes are available right now, like home energy efficiency improvements and solar power generation. Others should emerge in the next few years, like self-driving cars and widespread use of home power battery packs, which still others are only hopes for the future, like entirely new kinds of power transmission lines made from carbon fiber and truly sustainable biofuels.
One shortcoming I see in the book is an incomplete treatment of carbon footprints–although to be fair, few sources I’ve seen take an in-depth approach in calculating carbon footprints (Mike Berners-Lee’s How Bad Are Bananas? is a stand-out exception). For example, Nye more than once refers to nuclear power as carbon-free, which may be true if all you’re looking at is direct emissions from the power plant itself, but which fails to take into account the carbon footprint from construction of these extremely resource-intensive facilities or of mining their fuel (and later handling the resulting nuclear waste). As another example, when discussing self-driving taxipods, Nye doesn’t examine the extra impact of these vehicles having to drive to where their are passengers in the first place, which is probably a negligible concern in urban areas but much more significant elsewhere.
Another problem with the book is Nye’s multi-chapter discussion toward the end of the book about space exploration, a section has virtually nothing to do with climate change. Nye being the C.E.O. of the Planetary Exploration Society, I can well understand his support, but rocket launches (which are required even for, to give an example, the solar-powered spacecraft he discusses) are among the very worst offenders in terms of greenhouse gas emissions of any human activity. Climate impact expert Mike Berners-Lee estimates a space shuttle launch emits at least 4,600,000 kilograms CO2 equivalent, roughly similar to 200 years of emissions for an average American, 1,500 years of emissions for an average citizen of China, or 46,000 years of emissions for the average Malawian.
Space boosterism emphatically doesn’t belong in a book on climate change, but you can safely skip chapters 31 to 33 without missing anything important climate change information, or read them if you are curious about space travel (though I’d encourage everyone to think of that as something to explore further after we’ve dealt with climate change). Either way, those chapters don’t much detract from what otherwise, on the whole, is an excellent set of insights into climate change and its solutions.
This gallery contains 4 photos.
The new Web site ClimateVisuals.Org offers both copyrighted and free images that explain the causes, consequences, solutions, and stories behind climate change. It’s a remarkable new resource developed from thoughtful and careful research into how people respond to and understand … Continue reading
Once there was an adorable little chipmunk named Fluffy William, who for whatever reason could understand English. It was just one of those things.
Fluffy William was so wee and cute that he charmed everyone he met, except for gardeners, from whose strawberry patches he had a habit of selecting a strawberry, eating just one bite, and then moving on–though in Fluffy William’s defense, his wee stomach was so small that one bite of strawberry filled him right up.
Fluffy William lived an unusually happy chimpmunk life, with cool leaves to rustle under in hot weather and a warm nest to bed down in when it turned cold, until he chanced to be sitting by an open window during a ninety-minute documentary on climate change. Climate change, it turned out, was weather and temperatures and reliable natural cycles all going haywire. Climate change was floods in the Spring and droughts in the Summer and hurricanes in the Fall and God only knows what kind of trouble in the winter. Climate change would make it harder for people to grow food, which would make for more desperate people, which would make for more disasters and refugees and wars. It rapidly became clear to Fluffy William, understanding English as he did, that somebody needed to do something about this climate change problem, and quick.
So Fluffy William ventured deep into the woods until he came to the burrow of Elder Stern Wanda, the wisest and most respected chipmunk anywhere thereabouts. There, breathlessly, he explained about climate change.
“We have to do something about this terrible problem, Elder Stern Wanda!” cried Fluffy William. “But what can I do? I’m just one little chipmunk.”
“You can’t do anything,” said Elder Stern Wanda. “Anything you might try to do would be totally useless. It’s the humans who have to do something about it, and everybody knows you can’t make a human do something they haven’t chosen to do on their own without a gun or a fistful of money.” Elder Stern Wanda picked up an old, chewed-up acorn and gnawed at it gingerly with her one remaining front tooth. The effort seemed to exhaust her after a few gnaws, and she put it back down. Age has its compensations, but it’s still a pain in the neck.
“So humans have to each decide to change their habits on their own?” said Fluffy William.
“Don’t hold your breath for it,” said Elder Stern Wanda. “Now scamper along home.”
So Fluffy William scampered along home and did nothing. That next spring there was a terrible flood, and in the summer there was a terrible drought. Regrettably, Fluffy William could not compete with the other chipmunks for the scarce food available, as he was so wee and cute, so he died of starvation.
He never did find out whether the humans did anything about climate change.
I’ve been working on my current book project, the novel The Town at World’s End, since late 2012. The story follows climate change educator Jess Finch from tragedy in an unseasonable and outsize storm through trying to piece her life back together and make a real difference in climate change. On the way, it imparts a huge amount of specific, practical information on reducing carbon footprint–not just facts, but experiences, problems, contradictions, motivation, obstacles, side benefits … even how to make sure the wires don’t fall into the wall when you’re installing a programmable thermostat.
Anyway, it wasn’t until a good ways into the project that I realized I needed to be maintaining a bibliography. Even though this is a novel, it’s based on a massive body of research, writing, and other resources, many of which are well worth reading (or seeing, as the case may be).
How long ’til doomsday? Should I replace my windows? How do I grow my own food year round in a cold climate without wasting energy? What’s biochar? How do I talk with someone who doesn’t even believe climate change is a threat? It’s all in the below, plus a lot more. Actually, it’s enormously encouraging to me to realize how many smart, dedicated, hard-working, resourceful people are out there working on all of the facets of the climate change problem. If you’re one of them, I’d like to take this moment to express my deep gratitude and to cheer you on.
I still have a lot of work to do in pulling that bibliography together, adding other items, formatting it usefully, categorizing, and so forth, but as an initial step I thought I’d share the initial bibliography notes, in case it’s helpful to anyone in finding good sources of information on climate change and carbon footprint.
How Bad Are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything
Greystone Books, April 1, 2011
“How to Start a Shuttle Business”
by Felicia Greene, Demand Media
“Interviews with flood victims in Oxford”
Climate Outreach & Information Network
“How much electricity does an American home use?”
US Energy Information Administration
“Average Household Electricty Use Around the World”
“George Marshall on How to Talk to a Climate Change Dissenter”
Extreme Weather: Climate Change in Action?
Don’t Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change
Bloomsbury USA (August 19, 2014)
(Portions of the book made available to Luc by the author prior to publication)
“Risky Business: The Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States”
The Risky Business Project
An Inconvenient Truth
Viking Books, 4/10/07
“Global Food Waste in 8 Numbers”
“Intermarché – ‘Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables'”
“Deforestation and Its Extreme Effect on Global Warming”
Roddy Scheer and Doug Moss, Nov 13, 2012
“Health care accounts for eight percent of US carbon footprint, calculation finds”
University of Chicago Medical Center
Jeanette W. Chung; David O. Meltzer. Estimate of the Carbon Footprint of the US Health Care Sector. JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2009; 302 (18): 1970 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1610
“Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings”
US Dept. of Energy
“Ask Pablo: Is It Really Worth It to Insulate My Pipes?”
Pablo Paster, January 16, 2012
“This or That: Curtains or Plastic for Insulating Windows?”
Emily Main, 11/9/2009
“Conserve Energy with Plastic Window Insulation”
Josh Peterson, Planet Green
“Ask Pablo: Is Replacing Windows a Good Investment?”
August 17, 2010
“Noooo Edinburgh, Don’t Lift Ban on Changing Windows in Historic Structures”
“Are New Windows Really Worth It?”
“Obama Seeks to Boost Resilience to Climate-Driven Drought Fires”
Mark Drajem, Bloomberg News
“Supporting fire and rescue authorities to reduce the number and impact of fires”
UK Dept. for Communities and Local Government
“No Single Solution”
Energy Co-op of Vermont
“This Is Why It Makes Sense to Pair Solar With Electric Vehicles”
Tam Hunt, 7/14/14
“Why heat pumps are hot in Vermont this summer”
Julie Kelley, 8/6/14
Fostering Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, 3rd edition
by Doug McKenzie-Mohr (Mar 15, 2011)
New Society Publishers
Aquaponic Gardening: A Step-by-step guide to raising vegetables and fish together
by Sylvia Bernstein
New Society Publishers, 10/11/11
“Al Gore ‘profiting’ from climate change agenda”
By Nick Allen in Los Angeles 7:13PM GMT 03 Nov 2009
“Al Gore to Donate His Half of Nobel Prize Money to Charity”
The Chronicle of Philanthropy”
“Does Aquaponics Really Work?
NOV 4, 2010
“How to build a heat sink for a self-heating greenhouse”
Mark Finch, 7/28/13
“Build a $300 underground greenhouse for year-round gardening”
Kimberley Mok, 2/22/13
“Most stable year round greenhouse in 5b climate”
Permies.com (forum discussion)
“All About Valhalla’s Earthship Greenhouse, part 7”
Vahalla Movement, Quebec
Posted April 20, 2014
“Solar Passive Greenhouse for 4-Season Harvest”
“Passive Solar Aquaponic Greenhouse Tour 2”
“Greenhouse vent openers & supplies”
“How We Designed Our Solar Greenhouse”
The Permaculture Research Institute
by Rob Avis, 2/11/11
Hollywood Global Warming Dramas Can Be Misleading”
Seán Ó Heigeartaigh
“Climate Fiction Will Reinforce Existing Views”
George Marshall, 7/29/14
“Personal Stories About Global Warming Change Minds”
Heidi Cullen, 7/30/14
“George Marshall on communicating climate change following extreme weather events”
Rob Hopkins, 3/20/14
“Sleepwalking into Disaster: Are We in a State of Denial about Climate Change?”
George Marshall, 9/22/05
The Aquaponic Gardening Community (online forum)
Essex Farm: About Us
(this is the farm that offers its members a CSA that can provide all of their food)
“3-D Printing Will Be a Manufacturing Engine for the Economy”
Daniel S. Hamermesh, 8/12/14
“3-D Printers Are No Rival for Mass Production”
Nick Allen, 8/12/14
“With 3-D Printers Comes the Possibility of Medical Miracles”
Mick Ebeling, 8/11/14
“3-D Printers Allow Designers to Go to a New Level”
Kacie Hultgren, 8/11/14
“Space Travel Will Be Easier and Less Costly With 3-D Printers”
Alison Nordt, 8/11/14
“3-D Printers Mean More Plastic in Landfills”
Luke Heemsbergen, 8/11/14
“Community Greenhouse Gas Reduction Plan”
City of Arcata, CA
“Assessment of Arcata’s Community Greenhouse Gas Reduction Plan”
Hackett, John et al
“Zero Energy Homes”
Presentation by Li Ling Young, Efficiency Vermont
for Net Zero Montpelier
Thu, Nov 13, 2014
A similar presentation by Young at a different location can be viewed online at http://www.brattleborotv.org/efficiency-vermont/path-zero-energy-homes-li-ling-young-hd
“The Turning Point: New Hope for the Climate”
Al Gore, 6/18/14
“Americans Still Favor Energy Conservation Over Production”
Americans Want More Emphasis on Solar, Wind, Natural Gas
Energy Star Program
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy
“Do Space Heaters Save Money and Energy?”
Kiera Butler, 1/10/11
The Climate Challenge: 101 Solutions to Global Warming
New Society Publishers, 2009
Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis
Rodale, Inc., 2009
“Study provides new metric for comparing the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide”
Apr 28, 2014 by David L. Chandler
“Climate impacts of energy technologies depend on emissions timing”
Morgan R. Edwards & Jessika E. Trancik, 25 April 2014
Nature Climate Change
abstract at http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v4/n5/full/nclimate2204.html
“Evaluation of Net Metering in Vermont”
Vermont Public Service Dept.
10/1/14, revised 11/7/14
U.S. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy
“Want to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint? Choose Mackerel Over Shrimp”
April Fulton, 7/29/14
“Going Green: Carbon footprints revisited”
Lisa Duchene, 5/1/09
“Fueling the Fleet, Navy Looks to the Seas”
(about synthesizing jet fuel from the carbon in seawater)
US Naval Research Laboratory
Daniel Perry, 9/24/12
“US navy synthesizes jet fuel solely out of seawater; costs $3-6 gallon”
by Tibi Puiu, 4/14/14
“Can ‘Green Cement’ Make Carbon Capture and Storage Obsolete?”
New York Times
John J Fialka, ClimateWire, 8/13/10
“Frequently Asked Questions About Biochar”
International Biochar Initiative
“What Is Biochar?”
International Biochar Initiative
“Heat & Cool Efficiently”
US Environmental Protection Agency
“A Guide to Energy-Efficient Heating and Cooling”
US Environmental Protection Agency
“Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature”
US Environmental Protection Agency
“How to Clean a Clothes Dryer Vent”
“Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating”
US Dept of Energy
“#AskEnergySaver: Home Energy Audits”
US Dept of Energy
“Home Energy Audits”
US Dept of Energy
Low Carbon Diet: A 30 Day Program to Lose 5,000 Pounds
Empowerment Institute, 2006
“Average Daily Media Use in the United States from 2010 to 2014”
“Do Energy-Efficient Appliances Add Up?”
by Craig Guillot
“Refrigerator Retirement Savings Calculator”
US Department of Energy
“Adding Wall Insulation Has a Lengthy Payback Period”
Jeanne Huber, 12/14/2010
“The Potential of Biomass to Curb Global Warming”
Alliance for Green Heat
“Bulletin #7217, Maine Home Energy: Options for Home Heating Fuels and Energy Systems — An Overview”
(includes chart rating each option on e.g., convenience, cost, efficiency)
The University of Maine Extension
“Home Energy Sources”
(list of emissions by fuel source, but not compared to each other with equivalent units)
“Carbon emissions of different fuels”
(deals with fuels for heat and transport, thus doesn’t include non-fuel renewables)
Biomass Energy Center
“How We Calculate”
“Implications of Shale Gas Development for Climate Change”
Richard G. Newell and Daniel Raimi
American Chemical Society
April 22, 2014
Published in Environmental Science Technology, August 5 2014
“Georgia Mt. Community Wind Open House draws over 750 local visitors”
originally published in Vermont Business Magazine, June 2013
“After the Flood: Vermont’s Rivers and the Legacy of Irene”
(YouTube playlist of program in 4 parts)
November 26, 2013
“Cheap, Abundant Shale Gas Won’t Significantly Cut U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions”
Janet Pelley, Chemical & Engineering News
May 2, 2014
“Climate Change: 10 Years to Cut Off Nuclear War, Plagues”
(no longer available online)
Fairfax Climate Watch
“Carbon Cutoff Point ‘Is 27 Years Away'”
Climate News Network, 10/27/2013
“Global warming’s new frightening deadline”
Vancouver Sun, 3/9/13
“New global warming deadline: Reverse it in 8 years or it’ll be too late”
“Climate change deadline 5 years – IEA”
“We already blew the deadline to avoid dangerous climate change”
“The Deadline for Global Warming: Reversing the Effects of Climate Change Before 2017”
International Business Times, 11/16/11
“Carbon Footprint Of Best Conserving Americans Is Still Double Global Average”
How to Live a Low-Carbon Life: The Individual’s Guide to Stopping Climate Change
Building Powerful Community Organizations: A Personal Guide to Creating Groups that Can Solve Problems and Change the World
Michael Jacoby Brown
Long Haul Press (September 28, 2007)
Cooler Smarter: Practical Steps for Low-Carbon Living
The Union of Concerned Scientists, Seth Shulman, Jeff Deyette, Brenda Ekwurzel, David Friedman, Margaret Mellon, John Rogers, Suzanne Shaw
Island Press; 6th edition (April 3, 2013)
The Burning Question: We Can’t Burn Half the World’s Oil, Coal, and Gas. So How Do We Quit?
Mike Berners-Lee, Duncan Clark
Greystone Books (September 21, 2013)
Flight Behavior: A Novel
The Transition Handbook: From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience
UIT Cambridge Ltd. (April 1, 2014)
“Clean Break: The Story of Germany’s Energy Transformation and What Americans Can Learn from It”
Osha Gray Davidson
InsideClimate News (November 8, 2012)
Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet
Times Books (April 7, 2010)
One of the most demoralizing things about climate change is that it’s generally a one-way process: it’s easy for us to put more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but not so much for us to take them back out–at least, that’s what I thought until recently.
True, there has been some research into carbon sequestration (putting carbon dioxide directly into underground spaces or at the bottom of the sea), but these processes aren’t very far advanced or very affordable, and some of the plan for them is just to capture CO2 being produced by fossil fuel plants and sequester that. The fossil fuel industry likes to hold this very theoretical idea out as though it’s an available technology, so as to get a free pass to burn more fossil fuels.
But I mentioned that there was some hope, and there is: biochar.
What is biochar? It’s basically charcoal, an extremely carbon-rich material made at high temperatures, from 200 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit, which consumes pretty much everything in the fuel except the carbon. Biochar can be made from practically any burnable material–wood, seed pods, husks, brush, paper, manure, etc.–even trash.
What’s so great about that? A few things, actually! First, using the right process to make it, biochar produces energy without producing much in the way of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, the process that makes biochar can alternatively make liquid fuels from renewable sources. Third, and most intriguingly, biochar is very stable: you can bury it in the ground, and the carbon won’t go anywhere for hundreds to thousands of years. Fourth, when you do bury it in the ground, it increases the fertility of the soil by making necessary chemicals more available to plants and by helping retain and regulate water in the soil. Fifth, the process is simple enough that it can be used for everything from massive plants to cookstoves.
So the cycle can go something like this: plants grow, absorbing and using carbon from the atmosphere. The plants are harvested, and some or all of the resulting plant matter is made into biochar, producing up to about six times as much energy as it consumes in the process. The biochar is then buried in the ground, accelerating plant growth. Even without this acceleration, the new plants that grow where the old ones were harvested absorb more carbon from the atmosphere, and the process continues.
If we’re willing to commission a lot of large biochar plants and to make biochar a standard part of preparing agricultural lands–including reclaiming currently unproductive lands, such as former farmland that is tapped out or turning to desert–then we can actually pull a huge amount of the carbon dioxide we’ve generated over the past couple of centuries back out of the atmosphere, and reverse the process we’ve been causing that is currently wrecking our climate with no relief in sight.
Thanksgiving, Christmas, Passover, the Fourth of July, and other holidays all have a few things in common: they tend to involve travel and special meals or feasts. For many extended families, like mine, these kinds of occasions are the only times during the year we all have a chance to see each other, yet travel and food are two of the four biggest ways individuals and households contribute to global warming*. So our choices are to give up on sustainability over the holidays, to give up on the holidays, or to find ways to the holidays more sustainable, starting now. These posts are focused on that last option.
The way I propose we look at cutting any emissions is “biggest impacts first.” We often look for the easiest, most obvious ways to act more sustainably, but the truth is that there are so many low-impact things we can do, we can easily spend all our time on those and never get to the good stuff, the major savings. That’s where the Big Four offer a starting point. With those in mind, here are some tips for the making the largest possible savings in emissions at the holidays.
Rethink air travel: Flying around the country and even the rest of the plant has become relatively inexpensive and easy, but unfortunately it’s one of the worst offenders in terms of emissions. Not only do planes burn a lot of fossil fuels, they push out their exhaust at altitudes where their bad effects are at least doubled compared to what they would be on the ground. It’s not up to me to tell you or your family members not to fly, but there are ways to fly less, for instance driving together in an efficient car, taking a bus or plane or boat, or making one longer visit instead of two shorter ones. For more information on flying, see “You Want Me to Stop Doing What?”
If the trip is very important to you and you can’t find any way to make it other than air travel, you can consider making a donation to offset the climate impact. For example, Cool Earth is a non-profit organization that does excellent work preserving forests, which is one of the best possible ways to help slow climate change (even better than planting new trees). Donations to organizations that make a smaller or less direct impact would have to be proportionately larger.
The cost of offsetting a flight depends very much on how long the flight is. For a transatlantic round trip, an offset donation to an organization like Cool Earth would be only $20.90. A short round trip, for instance between Niagara Falls and New York City, would be only about $2.50. (Source: How Bad Are Bananas by Mike Berners-Lee)
Not making the trip in the first place is certainly the ideal way to go, but offsetting is a decent alternative if you are having trouble finding away around flying.
Use food well: According to FeedingAmerica.org, between 25% and 40% of all food produced in the U.S. will never be eaten. Take a moment to reflect on that with me: At least a quarter of all our food, and possibly closer to half, goes completely to waste! Meanwhile, much of this food is produced with energy-intensive methods that burn many tons of fossil fuels; methane from ruminant livestock (cows, sheep, and goats) that is more than 20 times as potent in damaging the climate than carbon dioxide; and chemical fertilizers that release Nitrous Oxide (NO2), a greenhouse gas more than 300 times as potent as carbon dioxide. Careful attention to what and how much food we buy and how we serve and store it can cut our personal food waste to far below the usual amount.
Time permitting, I’ll be posting further ways to transform the holidays over the coming weeks. A happy and sustainable holiday season to all!
Photo courtesy of Emily Barney
* The other two are heat/hot water and electricity.